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My current blog posts are trying to fill in details and to provide an update for a new generation to understand just what a long term project this is.
It is authored by, in listed order, John Mc Carthy of Dartmouth, Marvin Minsky of Harvard, Nathaniel Rochester of IBM and Claude Shannon of Bell Laboratories.His best known foray is Computing Machinery and Intelligence which was published in October 1950.This is the paper where he introduces the “Imitation Game”, which has come to be called the “Turing Test”, where a person is to decide whether the entity they are conversing with via a 1950 version of instant messaging is a person or a computer. I mean that both the ways people interpret Shakespeare’s meaning when he has Antonio utter the phrase in The Tempest.In one interpretation it is that the past has predetermined the sequence which is about to unfold–and so I believe that how we have gotten to where we are in Artificial Intelligence will determine the directions we take next–so it is worth studying that past.Thus, as Turing had reasoned, early work in Artificial Intelligence turned towards domains where there was little need for sensing or action.There was work on games, where human moves could easily be input and output to and from a computer via a keyboard and a printer, mathematical exercises such as calculus applied to symbolic algebra, or theorem proving in logic, and to understanding typed English sentences that were arithmetic word problems.He then turns to making a a machine that fully imitates a person, even as he reasons, the brain part might be too big to be contained within the locomoting sensing part of the machine, and instead must operate it remotely.He points out that the sensors and motor systems of the day might not be up to it, so concludes that to begin with the parts of intelligence that may be best to investigate are games and cryptography, and to a less extent translation of languages and mathematics.Turing estimates that in the year 2000 a computer with 128MB of memory (he states it as binary digits) will have a 70% chance of fooling a person.Although the title of the paper has the word “Intelligence” in it, there is only one place where that word is used in the body of the paper (whereas “machine” appears at least 207 times), and that is to refer to the intelligence of a human who is trying to build a machine that can imitate an adult human. He believes that it will be possible to make a machine that can as well as a human, and by the year 2000.