Second, without a local political tradition, it was difficult for Moldova to agree on a constitution and to find political leaders untainted by association with the highly centralized, authoritarian Soviet Union.Third, the transition from a controlled economy to a free market economy has been rocky.Transdniestria is also the source of much of Moldova’s electricity, which has been cut off at various times.
The extensive deforestation in the 19th century has also resulted in soil erosion, wind damage, a drop in the water table, flooding, desertification, and loss of fauna.
Moldova’s climate—warm and moderately continental—is characterized by a lengthy frost-free period, a comparatively mild winter, considerable temperature fluctuations, and, in the south, extended droughts.
The average annual temperature is in the mid-40s F (about 8 °C) in the north and the low 50s F (about 10 °C) in the south, but the July averages rise to the upper 60s and low 70s F (about 19 and 23 °C), respectively, and the mercury seldom drops below the low 20s F (about −3 °C) in January.
The Dniester uplands, their eastern slopes forming the high right bank of the Dniester River, border the central uplands on the east and northeast.
The northern landscape of Moldova is characterized by the level plain of the Moldova has a well-developed network of rivers and streams, all draining south to the Black Sea, but only about one-tenth of these exceed 6 miles (10 km) in length, and even fewer exceed 60 miles (100 km).