As a part of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, Kazakhstan developed into a regional nuclear power, and hundreds of said weapons were detonated (tested) within its borders in the mid-to-late 1900s.Amidst World War II, an increase in industrialization and mineral extraction developed, and soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the "Virgin Lands" campaign in an effort to transform pasturelands into a major economy booster for Kazakhstan.
The earliest peoples were a confederation of Turkic tribes, known as the Qarluqs, who had established themselves in eastern Kazakhstan in 766 AD.
The ruling structure split into two khanates, the Nogai Horde and the Uzbek Khanate, by the early 15th century.
As a result of the war, thousands of Kazakhs were killed, and even more fled to China and Mongolia.
The remaining citizens fought against the communist takeover, but were unsuccessful.
Part III: Specificities of Muslim reformism in the Volga-Urals - Gilbert Delanoue: Some models: Muslim reformism in Arab countries - Stephane A.
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Dudoignon: Elements for a sociology of Muslim traditionalism - Thierry Zarcone: Mysticism and brotherhoods in Musa Jarullah Bigi's work - Francois Georgeon: The Tatar "model" in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey Part IV: Islam and communal identity today in Tatarstan - Rozalinda Musina: Islam and the Muslim community in Tatarstan today - Lilija Sagitova: About the ethno-cultural specificity of contemporary Tatar society - Rafyq Mohammatshin: The institutions of Tatar Islam since perestroika - Jean-Robert Raviot: Tatarstan and the idea of "sovereignty-association" Price: 148 FF (approx.
This book gives answer to these and other relevant questions.
The authors are all experts and specialists of the region or representatives from the countries involved in conflicts.
Tatars of the Volga and the Ural "L'Islam de Russie. Dudoignon: General introduction Part I: Islam and society from 16th to 19th century - Iskandar Giljazov: The role of Islam in Tatar society (1552-1788) - Ildus Zahidullin: Some causes of the conversion of Kazan Tatars to orthodoxy - Agnes Kefeli: The role of christianized Tatar women in reislamization - Damir Is'haqov: Islam and ethnicity among Volga Tatars in 18th c.
Conscience communautaire et autonomie politique chez les Tatars de la Volga et de l'Oural, depuis le XVIIIe siecle", ed. Dudoignon, Damir Ih'haqov & Rafyq Mohammatshin, Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, September 1997 - 352 p. - Christian Noack: The economic and social background of 19th c.'s revival Part II: Communal institutions of Russian Muslims (until early 20th c.) - Ajdar Nogmanov: Russian legislation about Muslims populations (1552-1853) - Ramil Khajrutdinov: Integration of Muslim aristocracy into Russian nobility - Radik Salihov: Implication of Muslims in Kazan's town Duma (1880-1917) - Dilara Usmanova: Reforming the Muslim Spiritual Assembly in early 20th c.