Codifying and consolidating acts

codifying and consolidating acts-57
Shariah and fiqh are often treated as synonymous terms designating the body of rules constituting Islamic law.

Shariah and fiqh are often treated as synonymous terms designating the body of rules constituting Islamic law.

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The Qur'an is replete with commands to believers to abide by Gods limits, to obey God and his Prophet, and to judge according to what God has laid down.

It contains many references to Gods laws and commands.

In this category one finds very extensive rules regarding precisely how to carry out the acts of worship and religious observances incumbent on the individual Muslim.

The performance of daily prayers (salat), the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj), the practice of fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the payment of the alms tax (zakat) are all regulated by the rules of Ibadat.

In the case of Islamic law, the way is one that leads the righteous believer to Paradise in the afterlife.

The shariah is not deemed a religious law by virtue of the subject matters it covers, for these range far beyond the sphere of religious concerns strictly speaking and extend to the mundane affairs of everyday life.One way is to assess the moral character of acts, an assessment that corresponds to the deontological quality of the shariah.For this task there exists a fivefold scheme of classification, according to which an act may be mandatory, recommended, neutral (that is, entailing no moral consequences), blameworthy, or prohibited.The first category is that of the Ibadat, or strictly religious obligations.These comprise the believers duties vis--vis the deity.The classifications in the two schemes are not correlated; from knowledge of how an act is to be evaluated from the ethical standpoint, one cannot draw any automatic conclusions about the legal validity or invalidity of an act or whether it is punishable or goes unpunished by worldly authorities.Likewise, one cannot safely make assumptions about how acts will be classified from an ethical standpoint based on whether they are legally valid or not or whether they entail penalties or legal liability.Governments are subordinate to the shariah and must execute its commands and prohibitions.In other words, what Islam envisages is a scheme of divine nomocracy, in which the law is the medium of social controltruly, a government of laws, not of men.The precise nature of the relationship between the shariah and Islamic theology is not easy to delineate and has been the subject of disagreement among Muslim scholars of Islamic philosophy, theology, and law over the centuries.However, throughout the history of Islam there has been a tendency to emphasize the elaboration of exact standards for conduct rather than setting detailed standards for what Muslims should believe, and, by extension, to require adherence to the standards of orthopraxis rather than demanding orthodoxy of creed. The two principal divisions of the shariah are based on the subject categories of legal rules.


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