Ionization is the process by which radiation affects the human body and by which it can be detected as well.There are four basic types of ionizing radiation: alpha, beta, gamma and neutron.
Since they cannot penetrate even the outer dead layer of our skin, they are not an external hazard.
Beta particles are electrons emitted from nucleus of atoms at nearly the speed of light.
While the human body can sense and take actions to prevent injury by many physical agents, such as heat and noise, it cannot sense radiation.
Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of radiation, its sources, and how to protect yourself and others.
It so happens that some types of radiation produce greater effects on the body than others for the same amount of energy absorbed (absorbed dose).
To account for this, a Quality Factor (QF) is assigned to each type of radiation to express its relative effectiveness in producing damage.They are emitted with high energy from the nucleus of heavy elements during radioactive decay, but lose energy rapidly in passing through material.A couple sheets of paper are sufficient to stop most alpha particles.By virtue of their presence in the environment, radionuclides are found all the way up the food chain to humans.The human body contains a number of radioactive elements, including potassium-40, radium-226, and carbon-14.Gamma rays are electromagnetic energy waves emitted from the nucleus of atoms and have no charge.X-rays are the same as gamma rays, except they originate outside the nucleus from processes involving electrons.The momentous discoveries of these physicists led to a rapid advancement of scientific knowledge about radiation and radioactivity, as well as to many practical uses.For purposes of radiation safety, only radiation with the capability to cause ionization is of concern.Radiation is an extraordinarily versatile and useful tool in medicine, industry, and research.It helps saves lives and provides great benefits to mankind in innumerable ways. If used improperly it can be hazardous to health or cause injury.