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It is proposed that humans - and maybe even protohumans - routinely modified lithic material to incorporate simple but recognizable zoomorphic and anthropomorphic imagery, often along with at least potential utility as tools.This practice could have originated in Africa, migrating through millennia of ethnic and cultural diversification northward and eastward into the Americas, surviving here into at least the Early Woodland Period (ca. Initially recognized only as crude stone tools, but subsequently as much more, the artifacts have appeared in large quantity at depths of from near the surface to well below, and the surface of this large site has only been scratched.
A large linear earthwork is present at the site, a symmetrical rounded wall roughly 6 m (20') high at its highest point and several hundred meters in length.
It is quite straight and oriented to true north-south.
Ohio's state archaeologists have, however, indicated no interest in further inquiry, on the unfounded assumption that early Native Americans would have left nothing significant in this unglaciated and topographically rugged area (a bit too far from Columbus, perhaps? This author has been proceeding largely on his own with occasional assistance and advice from professional archaeologists, anthropologists, and physical scientists including geologists and petrologists with the training and experience required to determine whether or not a given rock could have acquired its current form entirely through natural processes.
Judging from ceramic material and a long, straight, and symmetrical earthwork oriented to true north-south, it appears that the upper artifact layer at this site may date from the Early and/or Middle Woodland Period.
But subsequently, similar artifact material has appeared at other sites in direct context with points, blades, etc.
temporally diagnostic of time periods as recent as Middle Woodland (roughly 100 BC to 500 AD).And tools of this kind seem to have coexisted for a long time with the currently more recognized and familiar flint implements, serving when and where these were not readily available.At this point, the actual age of this officially unrecognized yet professionally verified artifact material is of less interest than the simple fact that it is present, but contextual evidence strongly indicates that in the upper strata it is Early to Middle Woodland in age, or very roughly two thousand years old.At this site and others, it is often incorporated into simple lithic tools.) From the huge quantity of lithic artifact material, it seems that this site, with its commanding view, ample water supply, and terraced eastern (sheltered) slope, may have seen more than just part-time habitation.Initially, the possibility of a "pre-Clovis" presence came to mind since while none of the popularly recog- nized "Indian" spear heads and projectile points had appeared, many of the human-modified stones of local and non-local lithology were professionally recognized as in fact being artifactual, with others having a very high proba- bility of being so.Search all UQ websites or browse the sites below Some of the below sites provide functionality and databases that cannot be accessed via the search field above.If you cannot find what you are after, try visiting the relevant site directly.This material is presented for consideration by anyone with an interest in the early habitation of North America, describing artifacts first recognized and recorded in 1987 at an unglaciated hilltop site in southeastern Ohio.These are compared with similar artifacts from locations in other parts of the world.Several spirally fractured deer bones have been unearthed, indicating human activity.Human remains in the form of hair, usually dark brown when not faded, have appeared in direct context with the lithic artifacts. Tom Gilbert attempted mitochondrial DNA analysis of other hairs from the site, but unfortunately none of their DNA had survived, despite their outward appearance of being in good condition.